China's new materials industry is in the transition stage from self-sufficiency of low-end products to independent research and development of mid- and high-end products and import substitution. China's high-end new materials technology and production is weak, although the production capacity has increased significantly in recent years, but can not meet the demand for high-end products. This paper compares seven main directions for new material segments with potential for localization and enhancement.
One of the new material directions is lightweight materials. Carbon fiber is used in many fields such as aerospace and automobile with its excellent performance. China's carbon fiber industry has the problem of low capacity utilization and few high-end products.
The second direction of new materials is aerospace materials. Polyimide (PI) in aerospace, high-end electronic components, semiconductors and other cutting-edge fields have high application value. China is still facing shortage of high-end PI films and other high-end PI products.
The third direction of new materials is semiconductor materials. Silicon wafers are the main raw material for semiconductor devices and solar cells. Most of the silicon wafer production capacity for photovoltaic is concentrated in China, and the production technology level is the global leader. Semiconductor silicon wafer production process is more complex, some domestic enterprises are trying to break the technical barriers.
The fourth direction of new materials is a new type of plastic. Polyamide (PA) materials are subject to the technical barriers of foreign enterprises for raw material production technology. The material local replacement of China's new energy industry, electronic communications, transportation and other areas of development and progress is of great significance.
New material direction of the fifth is the electronic electrical capacitors new materials. Electronic paste is the key to manufacturing thick film resistors and other electronic components, widely used in photovoltaic, aviation, military and other fields. At present, the domestic electronic paste leading enterprises are committed to the production of high-quality, cost-effective electronic paste, market share has greater room for improvement.
The sixth direction of new materials is multi-purpose new materials. Polyphenylene ether resin is widely used in electrical machinery, IT, automobile, military industry, etc. The global market demand and consumption of modified polyphenylene ether are increasing year by year.
The seventh new material direction is optical and electronic chemicals. Optical films are widely used in electronic display, construction, automotive, new energy, etc. At present, China has achieved domestic substitution in the field of low-end optical films. In the field of high-end optical films, Chinese enterprises are seeking technological breakthrough and industrial upgrading through both endogenous and epitaxial approaches.
1. Materials history
China's new materials industry is in the transition stage from self-sufficiency of low-end products to independent research and development of mid- and high-end products and import substitution, and is located in the second echelon of the global new materials industry, and there is still a certain gap with the United States, Japan and other dominant enterprises. 2020 China's total output value of new materials reached 5.3 trillion yuan, an increase of 15% over the previous year, and the total output value of new materials industry is expected to increase to 10 trillion in 2025, with a compound annual growth rate of about 13.5%. The total output value of new materials industry is expected to increase to 10 trillion in 2025, with a compound annual growth rate of about 13.5%. The industrial structure is mainly distributed by special functional materials, modern polymer materials and high-end metal structure materials, accounting for 32%, 24% and 19% respectively.
The new materials industry has a significant agglomeration effect, and the geographic distribution of subdivision direction areas have their own focus. The rapid development of new materials industry has promoted the strong adhesion between new materials enterprises and upstream and downstream industries, as well as multidisciplinary cross-fertilization. Many of the leading new material companies in China have been striving for domestic downstream customers who used to cooperate with leading foreign manufacturers by reducing cost, providing comparable or better technology and higher quality than the global leading companies, and forming stable cooperative relationships. This is the trend when the global pandemic trend has not abated and foreign manufacturers have frequent emergencies.
China's high-end new materials technology and production is weak, although the production capacity has increased significantly in recent years, but failed to meet the domestic demand for high-end products, the road to material strength is a long way to go.
2. 14th Five-Year Plan for New Materials
"The 14th Five-Year Plan proposes that new materials, as one of the seven strategic emerging industries and the key development areas of "Made in China 2025", will be the key industry with the most potential for development and an important impact on China's international competitiveness during the 14th Five-Year Plan.
China needs to change its mindset of pursuing high-speed growth, shift to high-quality development, improve the self-sufficiency rate, strengthen domestic substitution, so that the new materials industry transformation and upgrading of the role of "new dynamic energy" to play, among the ranks of the high-end industry.
3. One of the new material directions is lightweight materials
Carbon fiber material is used in many fields such as aerospace, wind power, sports and leisure, automobile, etc. It is the most widely used and highest marketed material in the field of new materials, and is known as the "king of new materials". The global carbon fiber market demand has been growing rapidly in recent years, and China has seized the opportunity to become the second largest carbon fiber producer in the world. However, China's carbon fiber
However, compared with foreign countries, China's carbon fiber industry still has the problems of low capacity utilization, few high-end products and difficult application development, and the downstream industry still relies heavily on imported carbon fiber products. In the current international environment, the realization of carbon fiber scale production and application development of the dual independent, is to enhance China's national defense and manufacturing strength, to protect the supply chain stability of the key.
China's domestic carbon fiber industry has been characterized by "many enterprises, high demand, high capacity, low output" for many years, mainly because of the competitive disadvantage with foreign products resulting in low demand for domestic carbon fiber, coupled with the backwardness of enterprise technology leading to the inability to fully release production capacity.
As a key material for the national economy, China has introduced a series of policies to support the progress of carbon fiber and carbon fiber composites, to realize the localization, independence and application diversification of carbon fiber, to realize the internal circulation of the carbon fiber industry chain, and to promote the healthy development of the carbon fiber industry.
Aluminum alloy is the most widely used alloy in industry, and has been applied in large quantities in aviation, aerospace, automobile, machinery manufacturing, shipping and chemical industries. Under the guidance of national energy saving and emission reduction policy, it is difficult for the automotive industry to optimize the energy consumption of vehicles only by design to meet the increasingly stringent national fuel emission standards, so the lightweighting of vehicles is the definite development direction of the industry.
Aluminum alloy is the main material for lightweighting in the automotive industry, among which aluminum alloy body sheet (Automotive body sheet, ABS) is applied to the heaviest body of the car, which is the key material to achieve the goal of lightweighting. At present, China has gradually opened up the national Some enterprises have already started to export the aluminum alloys for automobiles, among which domestic enterprises and foreign enterprises have production in domestic factories. The localization of aluminum alloy body panels is the key to improve the competitiveness of China's auto industry and help the country achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction.
4. The second direction of new materials is aerospace materials
Polyimide (PI) materials have high application value in many cutting-edge fields such as aerospace, high-end electronic components, semiconductors, etc., and play an important role in material renewal and iteration. At present, the global market demand for polyimide is growing, but the mass production of many high-end PI products and special function PI products is still monopolized by a few developed countries, and the relevant production technology is strictly protected. At present, China has achieved mass production in the field of low-end PI films and PI fibers, and gained global competitiveness in the field of electrical grade PI films.
Silicon carbide fiber (SiC fiber) is another new type of high-performance fiber developed after carbon fiber, which is a national strategic emerging material. At present, the application value of ceramic matrix composite materials made of SiC fibers in the field of aerospace engines is very significant. Developed countries in the West have successfully applied such products to improve several parts of the aero-engine and enhance the efficiency of the aero-engine. China's research on silicon carbide fibers has been laid out earlier, and with the cooperation of scientific research institutions and new material enterprises, the mass production of silicon carbide fibers has been realized and certain application results have been achieved. However, the current domestic silicon carbide fibers are lagging behind developed countries in terms of production capacity, quality and practical applications. However, from a global perspective, silicon carbide fiber technology is still developing and iterating rapidly. In the process of technology iteration, Chinese companies are expected to usher in the opportunity to overtake.
5. The third direction of new materials is semiconductor materials
Silicon wafers are located in the upstream of the semiconductor industry chain and are the main raw material for semiconductor devices and solar cells, mainly used in the two fields of photovoltaics and semiconductors, and the downstream demand has been growing in recent years.
China's semiconductor wafer industry started late and is lagging behind in development, and the global market is monopolized by Japanese manufacturers. The mainstream 12-inch silicon wafers are still not produced on a large scale in China and are heavily dependent on imports. The domestic enterprises represented by Shanghai silicon industry are trying to break the technical barriers, and there is a wide space for localized substitution.
6. The fourth direction of new materials - new plastics
Polyamide (PA) materials have excellent mechanical and chemical properties, and are used in a wide range of key manufacturing fields such as machinery manufacturing, mechanicalThe importance of PA is at the top of the five engineering plastics. China has achieved rapid growth in production and consumption in the field of conventional PA, and the production and sales of some key raw materials are already in the international leading position, but due to the technical barriers of foreign monopolies for raw material production technology, the production capacity of domestic high-end special nylon is limited, and the import dependence is large and the imbalance between supply and demand is serious, and the profit margin is seriously squeezed. In the background of "carbon neutral" and "plastic instead of steel" policy, it is of great significance to realize the domestic substitution of polyamide and its derivatives for the development of high-end products in new energy industry, electronic communication, transportation and other fields in China.
Polyphenylene sulfide is a special engineering plastic with excellent physical and chemical properties, modified polyphenylene sulfide can be used in many downstream fields such as environmental protection, automobile manufacturing, electrical and electronic, aerospace, etc. It has made important contributions to automobile lightweighting and air pollution prevention, and has broad development prospects in the future. China's polyphenylene sulfide industry has developed rapidly in recent years and has made up for the shortcomings of the industry in the past, and enterprises with global competitiveness have taken shape. However, compared with the international leading level, China still has room for improvement in many aspects such as technology level, product matrix and global sales channels. In the future, as the country increases the support to the new material industry and the green development strategy of "plastic instead of steel" is steadily promoted, the consumption scale and manufacturing capacity of Chinese polyphenylene sulfide are expected to be further improved.
7. The fifth direction of new materials is the new materials of electronic and electrical capacitors
Electronic paste is the core and key of manufacturing thick film resistors and other electronic components, and its quality is associated with the superior performance of thick film components. At the same time electronic paste is also widely used in photovoltaic, aviation, military and other fields. Among them, the positive silver paste has long-term irreplaceability for the photovoltaic industry. The overall photovoltaic industry is supported by China's international policy, new installed capacity and demand will continue to expand. At present, China's leading electronic paste companies are working to produce high-quality, cost-effective electronic paste to break through the electronic paste market monopolized by a few leading foreign companies. But by the influence of foreign enterprises first-mover advantage, the market share has more room for improvement. China has included the photovoltaic industry in the ranks of national strategic emerging industries. Import substitution of electronic paste is of great significance to the development of photovoltaic industry and optimization of energy structure.
8. The sixth direction of new materials is multi-purpose new materials
Polyphenylene ether resin, as one of the world's five general engineering, has high heat resistance, high electrical properties, acid and alkali resistance and other excellent properties, and is widely used in electrical and electronic and household appliances, office automation machinery, IT, automotive, aviation and military industries. On the whole, the global market demand and consumption of modified polyphenylene ether are increasing year by year. With 5G communication, new energy automotive and home appliance industries and the wide application of modified polyphenylene ether in these industries, it is expected that its demand will continue to grow and has good market development potential. China's polyphenylene ether industry has a significant gap with the developed countries in Europe and America in terms of quality, output and variety of grades, and there is still much room for development.
9. The seventh direction of new materials is optical and electronic chemicals
Optical film is a general term for a class of materials that can meet specific optical needs and contains a variety of specific products with different characteristics and functions. Benefiting from the global trend of large-screen TV industry, LCD demand will continue to have a steady expansion momentum in the coming years. At present, China has achieved domestic substitution in the field of low-end and mid-range optical film has already achieved domestic substitution. In the field of high-end optical films, Chinese companies are seeking technological breakthroughs and industrial upgrades through both endogenous and exogenous approaches. In the future, China's global competitiveness in the display panel field is expected to be further strengthened, and the breakthrough of high-end optical film technology barriers will be supported by more sufficient industrial experience. By breaking the overseas monopoly of optical film, it is expected to significantly reduce the production cost of downstream panels and enhance the profitability of the whole Chinese display industry chain.
China's new materials industry is in the transition stage from self-sufficiency of low-end products to independent research and development of high-end products and import substitution; China's high-end new materials technology and production is weak, although the production capacity has increased significantly in recent years, but failed to meet the demand for high-end products in China, the road to a strong material country is a long way to go.